Reply to 2 classmates: Inquiry

Reply to two classmates: 200 words each 

2 scholarly references, turnitin <10%

POST 1 Mayra

If a research design is not ethical, then it is, by nature, intrinsically problematic, as are any findings and applications that manifests in relation to it. When discussing the importance of choosing a proper ethical approach to research, one group of researchers uses the COVID-19 pandemic as a case study of the challenges in medical research that arise from needing to be ethical (Ma et al., 2020). Ma et al. (2020) show that, in certain cases, ethical dilemmas and considerations are not universally black and white, and that it can be difficult for researchers to conduct ethical research that is also effective and has a real world practical meaning. They discuss their approach as being grounded in the decisions made by ethics boards and other governing bodies, such as the American Medical Association. In another study, when describing their approach to balancing research ethics, Campbell et al. (2019) describe a balance between being unbiased and objective, and also being able to be empathetic, particularly concerning research about especially heavy topics, such as, in their case, sexual violence. Their approach to ethics involves familiarizing themselves with the topics and conducting research alongside trained agencies, such as agencies that specialize in helping address trauma for the victims of various types of trauma. They describe this as a way of balancing being objective with being empathetic to protect the rights of their human subjects (Campbell et al., 2019). Ashley (2021) explores the phenomenon of research fatigue. This is an ethical consideration that complicates the question of informed consent. In a research design that is truly ethical, participants have the right to withdraw at any time for any reason, and they know from the beginning how their information will be used, what the study is about, and so forth. The phenomenon of research fatigue, according to Ashley (2021) results in what is effectively a mass withdrawal from research by a large swath of the target population of a given phenomenon or research area. This presents an ethical problem, because researchers who want to work with that population cannot ethically force people to participate, and it is noted in this study that this can be addressed in multiple ways, but that the approach may necessitate choosing a different population or topic area. According to Legewie & Nassauer (2018), the existence of platforms such as YouTube and Facebook has created its own system of improved research ethics, because there is a demand for more transparency, and this is something that they follow in their research. A final consideration is presented by Dawson et al. (2019), who note within their study that the retrospective review process should be used to ensure the ethical integrity of all research, and that sometimes, the external review is more effective as an ethical approach than anything the researchers themselves apply.

Post 2 Lidia Vidal

The Utilitarian Approach Calculating Consequences This article provides a pragmatic approach to the Utilitarian Approach to Ethics. Let’s say the CIA learns of a plan to detonate a dirty bomb in a large American metropolis. The person who agents believe knows the device’s location has been apprehended. Can they legally torture the suspect into disclosing the bomb’s location? What about if many people’s lives depended on violating the dignity of just one? If your answer was “yes,” you were likely employing utilitarianism in your thought process. In its simplest form, utilitarianism is the belief that the best thing to do is the one that results in the most significant net benefit to the largest number of people (Bench-Capon, 2020). As long as a decision results in the greatest good for the most important number of people, utilitarianism doesn’t care how that good is achieved. The Rights Approach All too frequently, emergency services only focus on meeting the most immediate, tangible requirements. This is not to say that these services are not valuable or important; instead, it is to say that they do not always fit within a framework that protects and promotes the rights of beneficiaries. A rights-based approach is especially vital when tackling VAWG, which cannot be solved without addressing fundamental gender equality rights issues and their root causes. The Fairness or Justice Approach The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle laid the groundwork for the fairness or justice approach to ethics when he proclaimed, “equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally.” How is action the central moral question in this theory? Are all people given the same opportunities, or does it have biases and special treatment for some? Both favoritism and discrimination unfairly target specific individuals for special treatment while subjecting others to fewer restrictions (Jeanes, 2017). Discrimination and favoritism are both unfair and wrong. The Common-Good Approach This ethical stance presumes that people live in a society with a vested interest in contributing to the common good. Community members are united by their shared commitment to a set of ideals. The common good is an idea that has been around for almost two thousand years, thanks to the works of philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. In a more modern definition, “certain general conditions equal to everyone’s advantage,” stated by contemporary ethicist John Rawls, “is the common good.” This strategy aims to maximize the positive effects of the social policies, structures, institutions, and environments on which we all rely. Goods that benefit everyone include: Accessible and quality medical treatment. Public solid safety measures. International stability. Fair and equitable law enforcement. A clean and healthy natural environment. The Virtue Approach According to proponents of the virtue approach to ethics, living up to specific standards is necessary for maturing into our full potential as human beings. These principles emerge from introspection about the kinds of individuals we can develop into. A virtue is a quality of mind or personality that helps us become all that we are capable of becoming (Squires, et al., 2019). They make it possible for us to act on the values we’ve embraced. Among the many qualities that people possess are honesty, bravery, compassion, generosity, faithfulness, integrity, fairness, self-control, and wisdom.

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