An antibacterial drug used to control the growth of unwanted microbes in the human body is azithromycin dihydrate, and comes from an older antibacterial drug called erythromycin. It is commonly prescribed in pill form as Zithromax (Z-Pak), a five day regimen made up of two doses of 250mg on the first treatment day and then one daily dose of 250mg for 3 days. Azithromycin dihydrate is a white crystalline powder having a molecular formula of C38H72N2O12 2H2O. Dihydrate means a hydrate having two molecules. Azithromycin dihydrate’s molecular weight is 785.0. It belongs to the medicine class of macrolides. Azithromycin is taken orally. The active ingredient works by binding to the 23S rRNA of the 50S ribosomal subunit of bacteria preventing protein synthesis and killing bacteria. Some infections attacked by this antibacterial drug are streptococcal pharyngitis also known as strep throat, Mycobacterium avium infection which causes MAC lung disease and brain abscesses, and Chlamydia trachomatis a sexual transmitted disease commonly called Chlamydia. The inactive ingredients are croscarmellose sodium, dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous, Hypromellose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, pregelatinized starch, sodium lauryl sulfate, and titanium dioxide. Common side effects are nausea, diarrhea, and acute abdominal pain.
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Chlamydial Infections – STI Treatment Guidelines. Cdc. https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment-guidelines/chlamydia.htm
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(2023). ZITHROMAX® TABLET, SUSPENSION Description (azithromycin dihydrate TABLET, SUSPENSION) | Pfizer Medical Information – US. Pfizermedicalinformation. https://www.pfizermedicalinformation.com/en-us/zithromax/description
Iodine is a naturally occurring antimicrobial that is very effective and is unique in the sense that it is effective against any kind of bacteria. It is sporicidal, fungicidal, and to an extent, virucidal. Iodine is the only active ingredient, clearly and it is typically used as a tincture for cleaning and disinfecting wounds, scratches or cuts. The mode by which Iodine works is not fully understood yet by professionals. However, we do know that it is an oxidizing agent, and it is thought that it has properties to irreversibly oxidize thus inactivating “essential metabolic compounds such as proteins with sulfhydryl groups.” (9 important antimicrobial chemical agents.) It is also thought that it works because of its reaction with tyrosine units of enzymes and other cellular proteins that require tyrosine. This reaction is called halogenation. There are some risks to using iodine, but typically only as a dietary supplement rather than a antimicrobial agent. However, it should be noted that iodine can cause upset stomach, thyroid issues, diarrhea, headaches, and a metallic taste in the mouth. It is considered generally safe to be used on the skin as a tincture for cleaning and disinfecting wounds. Some people can be allergic to iodine as well, so it is always recommended to ensure that a person is not allergic before using it to disinfect any wounds, cuts, or scrapes.
9 important antimicrobial chemical agents. Biology Discussion. (2016, September 16). Retrieved April 4, 2023, from https://www.biologydiscussion.com/microorganisms/9-important-antimicrobial-chemical-agents/55259