Justice from Thrasymarcus view. book name is “Plato’s Republic”

A significant and extensively elaborated topic in Plato’s Republic: for example, Justice, Knowledge, the Good, Virtue, Gender, Labor, Property, the State, the three waves of tradition NOTE ON SHORT REFLECTION ESSAYS (SREs)1. Each SRE must be at least 350 words (not counting your name, my name, title, footnotes or endnotes, or bibliography). A good SRE will be a cogent and concise reflection on the topic assigned. A good reflection essay will have a thesis, a conceptual development and support of the thesis, and a conclusion. A good reflection essay will be insightful; that is, it will shed light (your light) on the issue that you are considering in it, and it will go beyond the level of development of that concept attained in class.2. A good SRE should not be a summary of class discussion and/or the reading; a mere exposition of someone’s ideas without any additional development of your own is a mere summary). Also, it should not be a mere reaction to a concept, idea, issue, etc., raised in class or in the readings: for instance, an essay that merely states that you like or dislike an idea or concept, without providing a reasoned argumentation for that preference or criticism is a mere reaction and, as such, not an argument.3. A good SRE will have bibliographical references to support your interpretation of a particular passage in the text. Your bibliographical references should include a bibliography of cited texts and page references to quotations, paraphrases, and citations.Again, make sure that your reflection essay has a clearly stated thesis, an articulate and relevant defense of the thesis, and a conclusion.4. Illustration:Formulate a thesis, defend the thesis, and write a conclusion.In order to formulate a thesis, choose a topic! Then, ask yourself a question about the topic you are exploring; make the question as specific as possible; then reformulate the question as an answer; then telegraph your answer to the reader.For example: Suppose you have decided to write about Marx’s concept of alienation or estrangement in a capitalist society. Marx was writing in the 19th century. We live in the 21st. Those are facts that may prove pertinent. Suppose the question you are asking yourself as you are reading Marx is: Is the theory of alienation developed by Marx in the 19th century of relevance to the labor of the working classes in 21st century US?A question is not a thesis, of course. So, now reformulate it as a thesis:For example: In this paper I will argue that the theory of alienation developed by Marx may be relevant in some respects but not others in the United States today. I will argue that it is relevant in X and Y industries but not so in the labor conditions of Z industry.In the main body of the paper, you will state the theory presented by the text or texts you are analyzing (you will be interpreting) and then you will elaborate on your thesis.Thus, for example: According to Marx the alienation of labor is integral to the conditions of labor of workers under capitalism because, he argues, a, b, c, and d.Then you will present your views on the matter. For example:Marx’s theory is valid and relevant in X and Y labor conditions because…Marx’s theory, however, fails to capture the labor situation in Z because…Finally, your conclusion: What you have shown to be the case in your paper5. On Argument:A philosophical argument consists (a) at the level of the paper as a whole, of a thesis, statements supporting the thesis, and a concluding statement; (b) at the level of relations among statements, of statements in which some are premises and others conclusions that follow or are inferred from those premises; thus, at this level we say that an argument consists of premises, conclusion, and inference; (c) at the level of the statements themselves in isolation, of sentences that can be true or false.In an argument, premises and conclusions are statements. A statement is a sentence that is either true or false. For example, “it is raining outside” is a statement because it is a sentence that has the quality of being either true or false. However, the sentence “Ouch!” is not a statement and therefore it is in itself neither true nor false; but if I say, “I said ‘Ouch!’,” that sentence is a statement because it can be either true or false.In an argument, an inference is the logical connection we establish between premises and conclusion.necessarily from the premises. Arguments based on experience may give us true conclusions but the conclusions are not necessarily true; they are rather contingently true. To say that a conclusion is contingently but not necessarily true means simply that the negation of the conclusion does not lead to a self-contradiction. For example, if I say “crows are completely black” because every instance of my experience has been of black crows (“this crow is black,” “that crow is black,” etc.), there is no self-contradiction if I say “some crows are not all black.” That is to say, if I see a crow that has also white, it does not cease to be a crow. In fact, I may encounter crows (in, for example, Nairobi and Beijing) are are both black and white. An inductive inference is always open to falsification.A deductive inference occurs in an argument in which the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises; that is, a deductive argument is an argument in which the premises are inferred necessarily from the premises: If the premises are “All humans are primates” and “Donald Trump is human,” it would necessarily follow from those premises that “Donald Trump is a primate.”A deductive argument in which the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises is a valid argument. Notice that it does not have to be true in fact. It simply states that if the premises are true, then the conclusion is necessarily true. However, at least one of the premises may be false and, therefore, the truth of the conclusion (if indeed true) does not follow necessarily from the premises.Therefore, do not confuse truth and validity. They are not the same thing.

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